Bluehounds and Redhounds

the History of Greyhound and Trailways






internal links
within
this website:
home page
Atlantic
Greyhound Lines
Capitol
Greyhound Lines
Central
Greyhound Lines
Dixie
Greyhound Lines
Florida
Greyhound Lines
Great Lakes
Greyhound Lines
New England
Greyhound Lines
Richmond
Greyhound Lines
Southeastern
Greyhound Lines
Teche
Greyhound Lines
Tennessee
Coach Company
The Scenicruiser
Growing Up
at Greyhound


external links
to other websites:
Motor Bus Society
Greyhound
Bus Museum
Greyhound Lines
Trailways
Trailways History
by Jon Hobein

Dixie Greyhound Lines

Dr. D.B. "Doc" Rushing

©  Copyright, 2009-10, Duncan Bryant Rushing.


 

Contents

Introduction
Origin
Development
As a Greyhound Company
Merger into Southeastern GL
Beyond Dixie GL
Preliminaries toward Continental Trailways
Kinship with Federal Express
Conclusion
Related Articles
Bibliography


 

 

Introduction

The Dixie Greyhound Lines (DGL), an intercity highway-coach carrier, was a Greyhound regional operating company, based in Memphis, Tennessee, USA.  It ran from 1931 until -54, when it, along with the Teche Greyhound Lines, became merged into the Southeastern Greyhound Lines, a neighboring regional company.

Origin

The Dixie Greyhound Lines (GL) began in 1925 in Memphis, on the Mississippi River and in the southwest corner of Tennessee.  It started as the Smith Motor Coach Company, when James Frederick Smith, formerly a successful truck salesman, received a used truck as a gift from his previous employer (John Fisher, a dealer, who owned the Memphis Motor Company).

Smith removed the truck body, built a 12-seat bus body instead on the chassis, and started driving the vehicle himself.  He ran first between Memphis and Rosemark, northeast of Millington, in the north end of Shelby County, of which Memphis is the seat, about 25 miles from downtown Memphis to the north-northeast on state road 14, an alternate route to Brownsville.  He soon ran also between Memphis and Bolivar, about 66 miles to the east on US highway 64 (US-64), on the way to Chattanooga.

James Frederick Smith was the son of Captain James Buchanan "Jim Buck" Smith, who commanded steamboats on the rivers Mississippi, Ohio, Tennessee, and Cumberland – for several owners, including the Ryman Line, the property of Captain Thomas "Tom" Ryman.

[Tom Ryman in 1892 gave the funds for the construction of the Union Gospel Tabernacle in Nashville, which became renamed as the Ryman Auditorium after the donor died (in 1904), and which served as the home of the Grand Ole Opry from 1943 until -74.]

Early in his life, before age 20, young Smith discarded his first name (James), strongly preferring to be known as Fred or Frederick.

Late in 1909, after a devastating downturn in the waterborne trade, both the father and the son worked temporarily for Clarence Saunders, the famous wholesale grocer in Memphis, the inventor of the concept of self-service retail grocery stores, the builder and the owner of the Pink Palace mansion (later and now a museum), and the man who made and lost a fortune as the founder of the Piggly Wiggly grocery-store chain.

Development

By the end of his second year in business, Smith owned and ran 25 coaches; by the end of his third year, he had 60.  [In the early years Fred operated in Memphis his own plant in which he built his bus bodies and mounted them on the truck chassis.]

During its first four years the Smith Motor Coach Company started two more routes – to Covington and on to Dyersburg, about 75 miles to the north on US-51, and to Jackson, about 82 miles to the east-northeast on US-70 – then extended three routes – the Jackson line to Nashville, the capital of the Volunteer State and in the center of it, the Dyersburg line to Union City, and the Bolivar line to Selmer and onward to the east on US-64, along the southern margin of the state, to Chattanooga.

Even more growth came quickly, taking the firm outside Tennessee.  In 1930 it reached Paducah in Kentucky, Evansville in Indiana, and Saint Louis in Missouri; in the next year, 1931, it reached Birmingham, Alabama, on the way to Atlanta, Georgia, and Jackson, Mississippi, on the way to New Orleans, Louisiana.

As a Greyhound Company

In 1931 The Greyhound Corporation (with an uppercase T, because the word the was an integral part of the official name of the corporate entity) bought a controlling (majority) interest in the Smith Motor Coach Company, renamed it as the Dixie Greyhound Lines, and appointed Frederick Smith as the president of the DGL (as a subsidiary of the parent Greyhound firm).

Later that same year, 1931, Dixie reached as far north as Springfield and Effingham, both in Illinois and on the way to Chicago, thereby completing an important Greyhound direct through-route between Chicago, Illinois, and New Orleans, Louisiana, via Memphis, by connecting with other Greyhound regional operating companies to the north (the Illinois GL, later the Central GL, eventually the Great Lakes GL) and to the south (the Teche GL).

{In 1932 Smith (along with J.C. Stedman, an entrepreneur from Houston, Texas) also founded the Toddle House restaurant chain, based too in Memphis.  For the next several years the chain expanded through a number of states, opening as many as 50 new stores per year.  [Toddle House in 1955 served as the pattern for the creation of the Waffle House chain, partly because one of the founders of the latter had worked as a manager for the former (even while secretly taking part in founding the latter).]}

In January 1930 Fred Smith drew a brother, Earl William Smith Sr., two years younger than he, into the management of the Dixie GL (and later into Toddle House as well).  [Earl had worked (in both passenger service and dining-car operations) for the Frisco (SL&SF) Railway and the Santa Fe (AT&SF) Railway and as well for the Fred Harvey organization in the hospitality industry in the Far West.]

Fred also served a short time as an officer in the US Naval Reserve during World War II.

In 1948 Fred Smith suddenly died, and Earl succeeded Fred as the president of Dixie; then in 1949 The Greyhound Corporation bought the minority interest of the Smith family.  Earl remained as the president of Dixie, as a division of the parent Greyhound firm, until 1954, when it became merged into the Southeastern GL (called also Southeastern, SEG, SEGL, or the SEG Lines).

By 1954 the DGL ran from Memphis to Saint Louis, Paducah, Evansville, Nashville, Chattanooga, Florence and Birmingham, both in Alabama, Springfield and Effingham, both in Illinois, and Tupelo, Columbus, Jackson, and Vicksburg, all four in Mississippi, plus along branch lines to Jonesboro, Arkansas, and in West Tennessee.

The Dixie GL met the Southeastern GL to the east, the Teche GL to the south, the Southwestern GL to the west, and the Capitol GL, the Central GL, the Great Lakes GL, and the Pennsylvania GL to the north.

Dixie took part in major interlined through-routes (using pooled equipment in cooperation with other Greyhound regional companies) – that is, the use of through-coaches on through-routes running through the territories of two or more Greyhound regional operating companies – between Kansas City and Memphis, Saint Louis and New Orleans, Chicago and New Orleans, Saint Louis and Nashville, Memphis and Cincinnati, Memphis and Detroit, Dallas and Knoxville, Memphis and Atlanta, Dallas and Atlanta, Memphis and Miami, and Memphis and both Washington, DC, and New York City.

Merger into Southeastern GL

In October 1954 The Greyhound Corporation merged Dixie (along with the Teche GL, based in New Orleans, Louisiana) into the Southeastern GL, a neighboring regional operating company, based in Lexington, Kentucky.  The three fleets of the three divisions became combined into a single fleet.

Thus ended the Dixie GL.

Earl Smith, formerly the president of the DGL, then served as a vice president of the SEGL, although he chose to continue to maintain his office in Memphis rather than Lexington, Kentucky, the long-time SEG headquarters – until he died, in 1955.

Beyond Dixie GL

After that merger the newly expanded Southeastern GL served 12 states along 13,227 route-miles – from Cincinnati, Saint Louis, Memphis, Vicksburg, Natchez, Baton Rouge, New Orleans, and Lake Charles (in Louisiana) – to Savannah and Jacksonville – from the Ohio River to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Ocean.

In October 1957 The Greyhound Corporation merged also the Florida GL (FGL), one more regional company, based in Jacksonville, Florida, into the Southeastern GL.

In November 1960, in another round of consolidation, Greyhound further merged the Atlantic GL (AGL), yet another neighboring company, based in Charleston, West Virginia, with – not into but rather with – the Southeastern GL – thereby creating the Southern Division of The Greyhound Corporation (known also as the Southern GL), the third of four huge new divisions (along with Central, Eastern, and Western).

Thus ended both the Southeastern GL and the Atlantic GL, and thus began the Southern GL.

Later, about 1969, The Greyhound Corporation reorganized again, into just two humongous divisions, named as the Greyhound Lines East (GLE) and the Greyhound Lines West (GLW); even later, about 1975, it eliminated those two divisions, thereby leaving a single gargantuan undivided nationwide fleet throughout the US.

When the Southern GL came into existence, in 1960, the headquarters functions became gradually transferred from Lexington, Kentucky, and Charleston, West Virginia, to Atlanta, Georgia; when the GLE arose, many of those administrative functions became shifted from Atlanta to Cleveland, Ohio; later yet those functions migrated to Chicago, Illinois, then to Phoenix, Arizona, when, in 1971, The Greyhound Corporation moved its home office from Chicago to a new building in Phoenix.

In 1987 The Greyhound Corporation, the original umbrella Greyhound firm, which had become widely diversified far beyond transportation, sold its entire highway-coach operating subsidiary [its core bus business, known as the (second) Greyhound Lines, Inc., the (second) GLI] to a new company, named as the GLI Holding Company, based in Dallas, Texas.  The buyer was a separate, independent, unrelated firm which was the property of a group of private investors under the promotion of Fred Currey, a former executive of the Continental Trailways (later renamed as the Trailways, Inc., the TWI, also based in Dallas), which was by far the largest member company in the Trailways association (then named as the National Trailways Bus System, now named as the Trailways Transportation System).

Later in that same year, 1987, the GLI Holding Company, the new firm based in Dallas, further bought the Trailways, Inc., the TWI, its largest competitor, and merged it into the GLI.

The lenders and the other investors of the GLI Holding Company ousted Fred Currey as the chief executive officer (CEO) of the GLI after the latter firm in 1990 went into bankruptcy.

The GLI has since continued to experience difficulties and lackluster performance under a succession of new owners and new executives while continuing to reduce its level of service.  The reductions consist of hauling fewer passengers aboard fewer coaches on fewer trips along fewer routes with fewer stops in fewer communities in fewer states, doing so on fewer days (that is, increasingly operating some trips fewer than seven days per week), and using fewer through-coaches, thus requiring passengers to make more transfers (from one coach to another).

After the sale of the GLI, The Greyhound Corporation, the original parent Greyhound firm, changed its name to the Greyhound-Dial Corporation, then the Dial Corporation, then the Viad Corporation.  [The contrived name Viad appears to be a curious respelling of the former name Dial – if one scrambles the letters D, I, and A, then turns the V upside down and regards it as the Greek letter lambda – Λ – that is, the Greek equivalent of the Roman or Latin letter L.]

The website of the Viad Corporation in January 2010 makes no mention of its corporate history or its past relationship to Greyhound – that is, its origin as The Greyhound Corporation – as though to ignore or dismiss Greyhound or to escape from it.  [The GES Exposition Services, Inc., a subsidiary of the Viad Corporation, began in the 1960s as the Greyhound Exposition Services (GES).]

Preliminaries toward Continental Trailways

For a while during the 1930s Maurice Edwin (M.E.) Moore, from Jackson, Tennessee, worked as a field passenger agent for the Dixie GL (after first working in 1928 at age 18 as a ticket agent at a bus station in Little Rock, Arkansas).  Sometime late in the 1930s Moore left the DGL, then he founded the Arkansas Motor Coaches, based in Little Rock, bought 16 Flxible (pronounced as "flexible") Clippers, and started running them between Little Rock and Texarkana via Hot Springs.  [A Flxible Clipper, a product of The Flxible Company, of Loudonville, Ohio, was a small, short, modest, relatively inexpensive coach with 21-29 seats and a Buick (straight-8) or Chevrolet (straight-6) gasoline engine.]  He soon extended from Little Rock to Memphis.  In 1943 he bought the Bowen Motor Coach Company, based in Fort Worth, Texas, which had become a major carrier through a large part of the Lone-star State.  [The Bowen firm was already a member of the National Trailways association and therefore was known also as the Bowen Trailways.]

Thus began the Continental Bus System, which soon led to the formation of the Transcontinental Bus System, both based in Dallas, Texas, both using the brand name, trade name, or service name of the Continental Trailways, which together eventually became by far the largest member company in the Trailways association.  In 1968 it became a subsidiary of the Holiday Inns of America, based in Memphis, and later it became renamed as the Trailways, Inc., the TWI – which the (second) Greyhound Lines, Inc., the (second) GLI, bought in 1987 and merged into itself.

Kinship with Federal Express

James Frederick Smith, the founder of the Smith Motor Coach Company, was the father of Frederick Wallace Smith, who in 1971 founded Federal Express (FedEx), based in Memphis since 1974.  [A part of the cash from Greyhound (in the Smith family trust fund) served as a part of the seed money for the formation or early operation or sustenance of Federal Express.]

Conclusion

The Dixie GL made a major, significant, and lasting contribution to the present Greyhound route network.

Please see also any one or more of the articles (by clicking on any one or more of the links) listed in the navigational bar in the upper left part of this page.

Bibliography

Hixson, Kenneth, Pick of the Litter.  Lexington: Centerville Book Company, 2001.  ISBN 0-87642-016-1.

Jackson, Carlton, Hounds of the Road.  Dubuque: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 1984.  ISBN 0-87972-207-3.

Meier, Albert, and John Hoschek, Over the Road.  Upper Montclair: Motor Bus Society, 1975.  No ISBN (due to age of book).

Schisgall, Oscar, The Greyhound Story.  Chicago: J.G. Ferguson Publishing Company, 1985.  ISBN 0-385-19690-3.

Trimble, Vance, Overnight Success.  New York City: Crown Publishers, 1993.  ISBN 0-517-58510-3.

Motor Coach Age (a publication of the Motor Bus Society), various issues, especially these:

  • August 1977;
  • July-August 1990;
  • April-June 1995;
  • October-December 1996;
  • October-December 1997;
  • October-December 1998.

Backfire, the corporate newspaper for the Southeastern Greyhound Lines, all issues, from January 1938 through February 1956.

Jon's Trailways History Corner, a web-based history of Trailways by Jan Hobijn (known also as Jon Hobein).

Schedules and historical data at the website of the present Greyhound Lines.



If you wish to return to the top of this page, please click here.

If you wish to return to the home page, please click here.

If you're willing to sign my guestbook, please click here.
Please feel free to leave a message or just sign your name or screen name, whichever you prefer.
[There's only one guestbook for this entire website.]

If you wish, please contact me privately at "DocRushing [at] bluehoundsandredhounds [dot] info".
[I purposely typed my e-mail address in that unusual way
in an attempt to defeat the web-crawling spam-oriented harvester spiders.]


Posted first at 21:19 EST, Saturday, 05 December 2009.
Revised most recently at 20:24 EST, Sunday, 07 November 2010.

 




©  Copyright, 2009-10, Duncan Bryant Rushing.